Risk factors of bone mineral metabolic disorders

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Feb;25(1):101068. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2019.101068. Epub 2019 Dec 2.


Bone remodeling is a complex process which integrates different stimuli factors such as mechanical, nutritional and hormonal factors as well as cytokines and growth factors. Bone health depends on an adequate balance between all these factors. The typical bone pathology of the newborn is the metabolic bone disease of prematurity, favored by a lack of mineral accretion in the third trimester of gestation. The intrinsic defects of the bone tissue (primary osteoporosis) are usually of genetic or idiopathic origin and can affect both the term and the preterm newborn. Other risk factors for osteopenia (secondary osteoporosis) include maternal or gestational factors, nutritional deficits (calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D), endocrinological alterations, use of certain medications antagonistic to bone metabolism, mechanical factors and chronic diseases (renal or hepatic insufficiency, intestinal malabsorption, collagen or metabolic diseases). This review examines the risk factors of developing bone metabolic disorders in neonates.

Keywords: Calcium; Metabolic bone disease; Neonates; Osteopenia; Prematurity; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / etiology*
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / metabolism
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Phosphorus / metabolism
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / metabolism


  • Vitamin D
  • Phosphorus
  • Calcium