Researchers continue to develop therapeutic products for the repair and replacement of myocardial tissue that demonstrates contractility equivalent to normal physiologic states. As clinical trials focused on pure adult stem cell populations undergo meta-analysis for preclinical through clinical design, the field of tissue engineering is emerging as a new clinical frontier to repair the myocardium and improve cardiac output. This review will first discuss the three primary tissue engineering product themes that are advancing in preclinical to clinical models: (1) cell-free scaffolds, (2) scaffold-free cellular, and (3) hybrid cell and scaffold products. The review will then focus on the products that have advanced from preclinical models to clinical trials. In advancing the cardiac regenerative medicine field, long-term gains towards discovering an optimal product to generate functional myocardial tissue and eliminate heart failure may be achieved.
Keywords: Clinical trials; Heart failure; Therapies; Tissue engineering.