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Review
, 23 (1), 55-74

Vessel Co-Option and Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

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Review

Vessel Co-Option and Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

Elizabeth A Kuczynski et al. Angiogenesis.

Abstract

Vessel co-option is a non-angiogenic mechanism of tumour vascularisation in which cancer cells utilise pre-existing blood vessels instead of inducing new blood vessel formation. Vessel co-option has been observed across a range of different tumour types, in both primary cancers and metastatic disease. Importantly, vessel co-option is now implicated as a major mechanism that mediates resistance to conventional anti-angiogenic drugs and this may help to explain the limited efficacy of this therapeutic approach in certain clinical settings. This includes the use of anti-angiogenic drugs to treat advanced-stage/metastatic disease, treatment in the adjuvant setting and the treatment of primary disease. In this article, we review the available evidence linking vessel co-option with resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in numerous tumour types, including breast, colorectal, lung and pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. The finding that vessel co-option is a significant mechanism of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy may have important implications for the future of anti-cancer therapy, including (a) predicting response to anti-angiogenic drugs, (b) the need to develop therapies that target both angiogenesis and vessel co-option in tumours, and (c) predicting the response to other therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy.

Keywords: Angiogenesis; Anti-angiogenic therapy; Biomarker; Drug resistance; Immunotherapy; Invasion; Metastasis; Vessel co-option.

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