Blood Pressure Control and the Association With Diabetes Mellitus Incidence: Results From SPRINT Randomized Trial

Hypertension. 2020 Feb;75(2):331-338. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12572. Epub 2019 Dec 23.


The SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) demonstrated reduced cardiovascular outcomes. We evaluated diabetes mellitus incidence in this randomized trial that compared intensive blood pressure strategy (systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg) versus standard strategy (<140 mm Hg). Participants were ≥50 years of age, with systolic 130 to 180 mm Hg and increased cardiovascular risk. Participants were excluded if they had diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney disease, proteinuria >1 g/d, heart failure, dementia, or stroke. Postrandomization exclusions included participants missing blood glucose or ≥126 mg/dL (6.99 mmol/L) or on hypoglycemics. The outcome was incident diabetes mellitus: fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL (6.99 mmol/L), diabetes mellitus self-report, or new use of hypoglycemics. The secondary outcome was impaired fasting glucose (100-125 mg/dL [5.55-6.94 mmol/L]) among those with normoglycemia (<100 mg/dL [5.55 mmol/L]). There were 9361 participants randomized and 981 excluded, yielding 4187 and 4193 participants assigned to intensive and standard strategies. There were 299 incident diabetes mellitus events (2.3% per year) for intensive and 251 events (1.9% per year) for standard, rates of 22.6 (20.2-25.3) versus 19.0 (16.8-21.5) events per 1000 person-years of treatment, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 0.95-1.49]). Impaired fasting glucose rates were 26.4 (24.9-28.0) and 22.5 (21.1-24.1) per 100 person-years for intensive and standard strategies (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17 [1.06-1.30]). Intensive treatment strategy was not associated with increased diabetes mellitus but was associated with more impaired fasting glucose. The risks and benefits of intensive blood pressure targets should be factored into individualized patient treatment goals. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: Unique identifier: NCT01206062.

Keywords: blood pressure; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes mellitus; glucose; random allocation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents* / administration & dosage
  • Antihypertensive Agents* / adverse effects
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / methods
  • Blood Pressure Determination* / statistics & numerical data
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / drug therapy
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents

Associated data