Increased Prevalence of TG and TPO Mutations in Sudanese Children With Congenital Hypothyroidism

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 1;105(5):1564-1572. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz297.


Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is due to dyshormonogenesis in 10% to 15% of subjects worldwide but accounts for 60% of CH cases in the Sudan.

Objective: To investigate the molecular basis of CH in Sudanese families.

Design: Clinical phenotype reporting and serum thyroid hormone measurements. Deoxyribonucelic acid extraction for whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing.

Setting: University research center.

Patients: Twenty-six Sudanese families with CH.

Intervention: Clinical evaluation, thyroid function tests, genetic sequencing, and analysis. Our samples and information regarding samples from the literature were used to compare TG (thyroglobulin) and TPO (thyroid peroxidase) mutation rates in the Sudanese population with all populations.

Results: Mutations were found in dual-oxidase 1 (DUOX1), dual-oxidase 2 (DUOX2), iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD), solute-carrier (SLC) 26A4, SLC26A7, SLC5A5, TG, and TPO genes. The molecular basis of the CH in 7 families remains unknown. TG mutations were significantly higher on average in the Sudanese population compared with the average number of TG mutations in other populations (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: All described mutations occur in domains important for protein structure and function, predicting the CH phenotype. Genotype prediction based on phenotype includes low or undetectable thyroglobulin levels for TG gene mutations and markedly higher thyroglobulin levels for TPO mutations. The reasons for higher incidence of TG gene mutations include gene length and possible positive genetic selection due to endemic iodine deficiency.

Keywords: TG; TPO; congenital hypothyroidism; goiter.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Autoantigens / genetics*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / epidemiology
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / genetics*
  • Dual Oxidases / genetics
  • Family
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Iodide Peroxidase / genetics*
  • Iron-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Pedigree
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Prevalence
  • Sudan / epidemiology
  • Thyroglobulin / genetics*


  • Autoantigens
  • Iron-Binding Proteins
  • Thyroglobulin
  • Dual Oxidases
  • TPO protein, human
  • Iodide Peroxidase
  • DUOX2 protein, human