Visualization of woven bone structure through analysis of biopsy specimens using synchrotron radiation and conventional X-ray microcomputed tomography

J Synchrotron Radiat. 2020 Jan 1;27(Pt 1):199-206. doi: 10.1107/S1600577519015182. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Abstract

This study explores the application of synchrotron radiation and conventional microcomputed tomography (SR-µCT and C-µCT, respectively) in evaluating bone-biopsy specimens. Bone-biopsy specimens were obtained using a trephine bur during bone-graft removal for implant placement six months after performing a maxillary sinus bone-graft procedure. Image data of specimens were obtained using SR-µCT and C-µCT. SR-µCT was performed using the 6C biomedical imaging beamline at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory with a monochromatic X-ray beam of 23 keV, and C-µCT was performed using a table-top CT scanner (Skyscan 1272). Reconstruction images obtained using the two methods were qualitatively compared with 2D images evaluated under 3D visualization. The SR-µCT images, especially of the new-bone-graft-woven-bone formation, were less noisy and sharper than the C-µCT images. To evaluate the new-bone-graft-woven-bone formation, only the SR-µCT images showed areas of new bone (NB) formation with bone substitute (BS; Bio-Oss) and woven bone (WB) contact, and correctly visualized true 3D structures of bone formation. Hence, µCT techniques are non-destructive and can provide detailed images of bone biopsy. In particular, SR-µCT can be used to obtain improved image quality with contrast of NB, BS and WB, demonstrating a level of detail comparable with bone formation. SR-µCT could be an unbiased 3D alternative for imaging WB formation and for high-throughput analysis.

Keywords: bone biopsy; conventional X-ray µCT; synchrotron radiation X-ray µCT; woven bone.

MeSH terms

  • Absorption, Radiation
  • Biopsy
  • Bone Regeneration*
  • Bone and Bones / ultrastructure*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Maxilla / surgery
  • Refractometry
  • Synchrotrons*
  • X-Ray Microtomography / methods*