Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is defined as an inherited disorder characterized by renal cyst formation due to mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 gene, whereas tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome caused by mutation or deletion of the TSC2 gene. A TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome, which is caused by a chromosomal mutation that disrupts both the TSC2 and PKD1 genes, has been identified in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and severe early-onset autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The tumor tissue of patients with breast cancer with contiguous gene syndrome has a high mutation burden and produces several neoantigens. A diffuse positive immunohistochemistry staining for cluster of differentiation 8+ in the T cells of breast cancer tissue is consistent with neoantigen production due to high mutation burden.
Case presentation: A 61-year-old Japanese woman who had been undergoing dialysis for 23 years because of end-stage renal failure secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was diagnosed as having triple-negative breast cancer and underwent mastectomy in 2015. She had a history of epilepsy and skin hamartoma. Her grandmother, mother, two aunts, four cousins, and one brother were also on dialysis for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Her brother had epilepsy and a brain nodule. Another brother had a syndrome of kidney failure, intellectual disability, and diabetes mellitus, which seemed to be caused by mutation in the CREBBP gene. Immunohistochemistry of our patient's breast tissue showed cluster of differentiation 8 and programmed cell death ligand 1 positivity.
Conclusions: Programmed cell death ligand 1 checkpoint therapy may be effective for recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and tuberous sclerosis complex.
Keywords: ADPKD; CD8+ T; CREBBP; PD-L1; TSC2/PKD1 CGS.