Objectives: This study aimed to describe the development and implementation strategies used in the collaboration between a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and a grocery pharmacy chain and to evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacist's clinical integration in reducing hemoglobin A1c levels at clinic and patient levels.
Setting: The Kroger Co and Catholic Health Initiative St. Vincent.
Practice description: The Kroger Co is a large grocery store that operates 27 pharmacies in the state of Arkansas, with 20 locations in the central Arkansas area. PCMH is part of a large health system in central Arkansas with 10 primary-care clinics in the area.
Practice innovation: With the transition to value-based payment models, pharmacists are being utilized in settings outside of the pharmacy. This project demonstrates a partnership between a community pharmacy and PCMH. The community pharmacist spent 20 h/week in the PCMH providing medication therapy and disease state management services. Services were focused on patients with uncontrolled diabetes.
Evaluation: Descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of the pharmacists' time. A patient-level pre-post analysis of the mean changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was conducted for patients who interacted directly with the pharmacist. A clinic-level analysis was conducted to evaluate changes in HbA1c compared to that in a nonequivalent control group using a standard quality measure.
Results: In total, 312 individual patients interacted with the pharmacist. Of those patients, 228 had diabetes. A total of 111 patients underwent pre-post HbA1c analysis. In those patients, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean HbA1c . There was no difference in clinic-level results between the intervention and control locations.
Conclusion: Collaboration between a community pharmacy and PCMH is feasible and may improve patient care. Future research should include pharmacy-based visits and development of a process for improved communication.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.