Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacist attitudes regarding recommending pharmacy-based naloxone (PBN). The influence of gender, practice setting, the number of years of practice, state, and PBN involvement were explored. Barriers to, and facilitators of, provision of PBN were also assessed.
Design: A 71-question survey was designed to assess experience with, and attitudes toward, PBN. We employed a cross-sectional study design and utilized the online survey site Qualtrics (Qualtrics International Inc, Provo, UT).
Setting and participants: The survey was e-mailed to approximately 2900 licensed pharmacists from all practice settings in Massachusetts (approximately 1400) and Rhode Island (approximately 1500) and was open from April 5, 2016, until July 13, 2016.
Outcome measures: Attitudes toward opioid overdose prevention (12 questions) were used to develop the Opioid Overdose Prevention Attitude (OOPA) scale which consisted of 3 subscales: Opioid Overdose Prevention Attitude, Public Health Attitude, and Naloxone Dispensing Attitude.
Results: Of the approximately 2900 pharmacists who received the survey, 402 responded (13%), and 245 (137 from Massachusetts and 108 from Rhode Island) were included in the analyses. The majority (79%) identified as White or Caucasian, and 127 (51.8%) stated they had ever dispensed naloxone. Of those, 85 (67%) had done so in the past 30 days. We examined differences in the OOPA subscales by pharmacists' characteristics and pharmacy practice settings. Working in a pharmacy that had a standing order or collaborative practice agreement allowing pharmacists to dispense naloxone without a physician's prescription, or in a pharmacy that stocked naloxone resulted in more positive attitudes toward opioid overdose prevention and public health prevention.
Conclusion: Respondents who practiced in a pharmacy with a standing order or collaborative practice agreement were more likely to have dispensed naloxone. Both stocking naloxone and ever having dispensed naloxone were associated with higher OOPA scores. More research is needed to better understand how pharmacist attitudes influence the distribution of naloxone.
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