Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2019 Sep 30;6(24):1802230.
doi: 10.1002/advs.201802230. eCollection 2019 Dec.

Integrated Triboelectric Nanogenerators in the Era of the Internet of Things

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Integrated Triboelectric Nanogenerators in the Era of the Internet of Things

Abdelsalam Ahmed et al. Adv Sci (Weinh). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Since their debut in 2012, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have attained high performance in terms of both energy density and instantaneous conversion, reaching up to 500 W m-2 and 85%, respectively, synchronous with multiple energy sources and hybridized designs. Here, a comprehensive review of the design guidelines of TENGs, their performance, and their designs in the context of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is presented. The development stages of TENGs in large-scale self-powered systems and technological applications enabled by harvesting energy from water waves or wind energy sources are also reviewed. This self-powered capability is essential considering that IoT applications should be capable of operation anywhere and anytime, supported by a network of energy harvesting systems in arbitrary environments. In addition, this review paper investigates the development of self-charging power units (SCPUs), which can be realized by pairing TENGs with energy storage devices, such as batteries and capacitors. Consequently, different designs of power management circuits, supercapacitors, and batteries that can be integrated with TENG devices are also reviewed. Finally, the significant factors that need to be addressed when designing and optimizing TENG-based systems for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing applications are discussed.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); blue energy; energy storage; power management; smart cities; triboelectric nanogenerators.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Fundamental modes of triboelectric nanogenerators: a) Contact‐separation mode. b) Lateral‐sliding mode. c) Freestanding mode. d) Single‐electrode mode.
Figure 2
Figure 2
a) Flowchart of a semianalytical simulation model for a TENG energy harvester highlighting the effect of mechanical and electrical parameters on the optimized parameters. The input and output of the model are labeled in light blue and light red, respectively. b) Eco‐indicator results for 1 m2 of modules A and B. Reproduced with permission.23 Copyright 2017, The Royal Society of Chemistry. c) Comparison of LCOE for coal, natural gas, nuclear, wind, commercialized solar PV, hydropower, PSC, and TENG modules. Reproduced with permission.23 Copyright 2017, The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Hydrokinetic energy conversion schemes. a) Energy restoration mechanism. Real photos and schematic diagrams of fabricated TENGs: I) Box design; Reproduced with permission.24 Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. II) Sphere design; Reproduced with permission.25 Copyright 2015, John Wiley & Sons. III) Spring‐assisted structure; Reproduced with permission.16 Copyright 2017, Elsevier. IV) Wavy shape; Reproduced with permission.26 Copyright 2014, Elsevier. b) Rotary design‐based TENG. A real photo and a schematic diagram of a multilayered disk. Reproduced with permission.27 Copyright 2014, Elsevier. c) Electrostatic asymmetric screening. The structural design of the liquid–solid electrification enabled generator; a schematic of the bent electrification layer with two electrodes on one side. Reproduced with permission.28 Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society. d) Nature‐Inspired TENG. Real photos and schematic diagrams of I) a duck shape design; Reproduced with permission.5 Copyright 2017, John Wiley and Sons; and II) a bionic‐jellyfish (bj) TENG; Reproduced with permission.29 Copyright 2017, Elsevier.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Wind energy conversion schemes. a) Flutter design‐based TENGs. Real photos and schematic diagrams of fabricated TENGs: I) Hummingbird TENG (H‐TENG); Reproduced with permission.4 Copyright 2017, Nature Publishing Group; II) Flag TENG. Reproduced with permission.39 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society; III) Multilayer flutter TENG. Reproduced with permission.41 Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. b) Rotary design‐based TENGs. Real photos and schematic diagrams of fabricated TENGs: I) Rotary disk TENG; Reproduced with permission.42 Copyright 2015, Elsevier; II) Darrieus rotary TENG; Reproduced with permission.19 Copyright 2017, Elsevier; III) Hybrid TENG. Reproduced with permission.43 Copyright 2013, American Chemical Society.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Hybrid and Multimodal‐based TENGs for Scavenging Blue Energy. a) The structure design and an actual photo of a hybrid energy harvesting system (TENG and EMG). Reproduced with permission.47 Copyright 2016, John Wiley & Sons. b) Schematic illustration and a real photo of a hybrid nanogenerator (S‐TENG and W‐EMG). Reproduced with permission.12 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. c) Schematic illustration and an actual photo of a hybrid power textile. Reproduced with permission.48 Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group. d) Schematic diagram and a real photo of an integrated hybridized nanogenerator. Reproduced with permission.50 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. e) Structural design and a real photo of a multifunctional TENG, which mainly consists of two parts: a rotational TENG and a vertical cylindrical TENG. Reproduced with permission.51 Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons. f) Schematic diagram and a real photo of an as‐fabricated hybridized power panel. Reproduced with permission.52 Copyright 2015, John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 6
Figure 6
A network of TENGs for large‐scale power generation. a) A V‐shaped network of duck units based on a WEPTOS WEC model for wave energy harvesting. Reproduced with permission.5 Copyright 2017, The Royal Society of Chemistry. b) A TENG network composed of millions of spherical balls for harvesting large‐scale blue energy. Reproduced with permission.3 Copyright 2017, Elsevier. c) Schematic illustration of the configuration for wind energy harvesting using a TENG farm. Reproduced with permission.19 Copyright 2017, Elsevier. d) Schematic illustration of an energy harvesting panel floating on the ocean, which mainly consists of wind‐driven generators, solar cell panels, and arrays of hybrid nanogenerators. Reproduced with permission.12 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society.
Figure 7
Figure 7
IoT applications based on TENGs. Temperature sensors. a) Demonstration of the wireless temperature sensor node enabled by a duck shape TENG. Reproduced with permission.5 Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons. b) Demo of a wireless smart temperature sensor powered by a TENG. Reproduced with permission.53 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. Traffic volume sensor. c) Demonstration of a wireless traffic volume sensing system powered by a hybridized nanogenerator. Reproduced with permission.54 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. Temperature and humidity sensors. d) Schematic illustration of a self‐powered wireless weather station enabled by a rotary TENG for measuring temperature and humidity. Reproduced with permission.55 Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons. e) Illustration of powering a wireless temperature and humidity sensor node by harvesting high‐altitude wind energy. Reproduced with permission.39 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. f) Representation of a temperature‐humidity sensor node powered by a hybridized nanogenerator. Reproduced with permission.50 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. Wind speed sensors. g) Demonstration of real‐time airspeed measurement using an AF‐TENG sensor and a commercial sensor. Reproduced with permission.56 Copyright 2017, Elsevier. h) Diagram of a self‐powered, remote meteorological monitoring system enabled by a rotary wind‐based TENG. Reproduced with permission.57 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. Multisensing platform. m) Real photo of a self‐powered wireless environmental sensor node (pressure–temperature–humidity) enabled by an H‐TENG. Reproduced with permission.4 Copyright 2017, Nature Publishing Group.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Structure and performance of different self‐charging power units (SCPUs). a) The structural design of a flexible SCPU, performance of the SCPU as an integrated DC power source, and the voltage profile showing the charge and discharge characteristics of the lithium‐ion battery storage element. The SCPU provides a 2 µA DC current with a constant voltage of 1.53 V for more than 40 h. The operation of a UV sensor continuously driven by the SCPU in the “sustainable mode” for ≈13 h. Reproduced with permission.62 Copyright 2013, American Chemical Society. b) System diagram of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)‐based self‐powered system, working mechanism of an attached‐electrode contact‐mode TENG, a circuit diagram of the power management circuit, and system configuration of self‐powered human activity sensors for temperature and heart rate monitoring and a pedometer. Reproduced with permission.59 Copyright 2015, Nature Publishing Group.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Timeline of batteries for self‐charging power units. a) A coin cell lithium‐ion battery (LIB). Reproduced with permission.73 Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group. b) A commercial LIB. Reproduced with permission.74 Copyright 2016, John Wiley & Sons. c) A solid‐state LIB. Reproduced with permission.75 Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons. d) A flexible LIB. Reproduced with permission.76 Copyright 2015, John Wiley & Sons. e) A flexible LIB. Reproduced with permission.74 Copyright 2016, John Wiley & Sons. f) A flexible LIB. Reproduced with permission.77 Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons. g) A triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in an all solid–state LIB. Reproduced with permission.78 Copyright 2018, Elsevier. h) A triboelectric nanogenerator and a zinc‐ion battery on designed flexible 3D spacer fabric. Reproduced with permission.79 Copyright 2018, John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Timeline of essential milestones in supercapacitors for self‐charging power units. a) A fiber‐based solar cell (SC). Reproduced with permission.84 Copyright 2015, John Wiley & Sons. b) Kirigami structure. Reproduced with permission.85 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. c) Horn‐like Ppy SC. Reproduced with permission.73 Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group. d) Twistable SC. Reproduced with permission.85 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. e) Polymeric SC. Reproduced with permission.86 Copyright 2016, John Wiley & Sons. f) Wearable yarn. Reproduced with permission.74 Copyright 2016, John Wiley & Sons. g) CNT/paper SC. Reproduced with permission.61 Copyright 2016, The Royal Society of Chemistry. h) Stretchable yarn SC. Reproduced with permission.83 Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. m) MXene electrochemical microsupercapacitors integrated with a triboelectric nanogenerator. Reproduced with permission.87 Copyright 2018, Springer. n) Coaxial TENG and fiber SC. Reproduced with permission.88 Copyright 2018, American Chemical Society. o) All yarn‐based energy harvesting triboelectric nanogenerator. Reproduced with permission.89 Copyright 2019, John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Conceptual design for large‐scale renewable energy harvesting using photovoltaics, wind turbines, and triboelectric nanogenerators. For this system to function appropriately, large‐scale batteries are necessary, as they offer a well‐established approach for improving grid reliability and utilization. The schematic diagram of the nanogenerators on the roof of a city building is reproduced with permission.50 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Schematic represents the ideal paradigm of sustainable TENG devices in IoT applications. The first stage would be to provide electronic devices with energy harvesting capabilities. In the second stage, a power management unit with energy storage capacity will ensure optimal functionalities for distributed sensing networks. Finally, a network infrastructure has to be established for linking, monitoring and manipulating functionalities powered by a network of distributed TENG devices for multiple applications within the context of smart city design. Reproduced with permission.24 Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. Reproduced with permission.5 Copyright 2017, John Wiley and Sons. Reproduced with permission.12 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. Reproduced with permission.3 Copyright 2017, Elsevier. Reproduced with permission.39 Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. Reproduced with permission.19 Copyright 2017, Elsevier. Reproduced with permission.43 Copyright 2013, American Chemical Society.
Figure 13
Figure 13
A representative outlook on the major factors that need to be addressed while designing and optimizing TENG‐based systems for energy harvesting and sensing applications.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Höök M., Tang X., Energy Policy 2013, 52, 797.
    1. Jiang Q., Han Y., Tang W., Zhu H., Gao C., Chen S., Willander M., Cao X., Wang Z. L., Nano Energy 2015, 15, 266.
    1. Wang Z. L., Jiang T., Xu L., Nano Energy 2017, 39, 9.
    1. Ahmed A., Hassan I., Song P., Gamaleldin M., Radhi A., Panwar N., Tjin S. C., Desoky A. Y., Sinton D., Yong K.‐T., Zu J., Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 17143. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Ahmed A., Saadatnia Z., Hassan I., Zi Y., Xi Y., He X., Zu J., Wang Z. L., Adv. Energy Mater. 2017, 7, 1601705.

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback