Effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation in combination with weight loss diet on glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and matrix metalloproteinases in obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020 Oct;45(10):1092-1098. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0773. Epub 2019 Dec 24.


As there is limited and inconsistent evidence in potential role of vitamin D on insulin resistance and matrix metalloproteinases, this study aimed to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and matrix metalloproteinases in obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency. A total of 44 participants with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level ≤ 50 nmol/L and body mass index (BMI) 30-40 kg/m2 were randomly allocated into receiving weight reduction diet with either 50 000 IU vitamin D3 pearl (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) once weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in fasting serum glucose (FSG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Secondary outcomes were changes in weight, BMI, 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorous and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Sun exposure and dietary intakes were also assessed. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 increased significantly with a simultaneous decrease in serum concentration of PTH in the vitamin D group. Weight, BMI, FSG, and MMP-9 decreased significantly in both groups, and there were significant differences in changes in weight, serum 25(OH)D3, PTH, and MMP-9 levels between the groups. Within- and between-groups analysis revealed no significant differences in serum calcium, phosphorous, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, and MMP-2 after intervention. Our results indicated that improvement in vitamin D status resulted in greater reductions in weight and MMP-9 during weight loss. These preliminary results are sufficient to warrant a bigger study group.

Keywords: glucose homeostasis; homéostasie du glucose; insulin resistance; matrix metalloproteinases; métalloprotéinases matricielles; obesity; obésité; perte de poids; résistance à l’insuline; vitamin D; vitamine D; weight loss.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose*
  • Diet, Reducing / methods*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / blood*
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Vitamin D
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases