The ceramide analogue N-(1-hydroxy-3-morpholino-1-phenylpropan-2-yl)decanamide induces large lipid droplet accumulation and highlights the effect of LAMP-2 deficiency on lipid droplet degradation

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2020 Feb 1;30(3):126891. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2019.126891. Epub 2019 Dec 17.


Excess accumulation of intracellular lipids leads to various diseases. Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous cellular organelles for lipid storage. LDs are hydrolyzed via cytosolic lipases (lipolysis) and also degraded in lysosomes through autophagy; namely, lipophagy. A recent study has shown the size-dependent selection of LDs by the two major catabolic pathways (lipolysis and lipophagy), and thus experimental systems that can manipulate the size of LDs are now needed. The ceramide analogue N-(1-hydroxy-3-morpholino-1-phenylpropan-2-yl)decanamide (PDMP) affects the structures and functions of lysosomes/late endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and alters cholesterol homeostasis. We previously reported that PDMP induces autophagy via the inhibition of mTORC1. In the present study, we found that PDMP induced the accumulation of LDs, especially that of large LDs, in mouse fibroblast (L cells). Surprisingly, the LD accumulation was relieved by PDMP in L cells deficient in lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2), which is reportedly important for lipophagy. An electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the LAMP-2 deficiency caused enlarged autophagosomes/autolysosomes in L cells, which may promote the sequestration and degradation of the PDMP-dependent large LDs. Accordingly, PDMP will be useful to explore the mechanism of LD degradation, by inducing large LDs.

Keywords: Autolysosome; LAMP-2; Lipid droplet; Lipophagy; Multilamellar bodies; PDMP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autophagy / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Ceramides / chemistry*
  • Ceramides / pharmacology
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / pathology
  • Gene Editing
  • Lipid Droplets / metabolism*
  • Lipolysis / drug effects*
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2 / genetics
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2 / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • RNA, Guide, CRISPR-Cas Systems


  • Ceramides
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2