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Bromodomain and Extraterminal Inhibition by JQ1 Produces Divergent Transcriptional Regulation of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling Genes in Adipocytes

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Bromodomain and Extraterminal Inhibition by JQ1 Produces Divergent Transcriptional Regulation of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling Genes in Adipocytes

Paula Mota de Sá et al. Endocrinology.

Abstract

The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway has cell-specific functions. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative-feedback regulators of JAK-STAT signaling. STAT5 plays a significant role in adipocyte development and function, and bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins may be involved in STAT5 transcriptional activity. We treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the BET inhibitor JQ1 and observed that growth hormone (GH)-induced expression of 2 STAT5 target genes from the SOCS family, Socs3 and Cish, were inversely regulated (increased and decreased, respectively) by BET inhibition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that changes in STAT5 binding did not correlate with gene expression changes. GH promoted the recruitment of the BET protein BRD2 to the Cish, but not Socs3, promoter. JQ1 treatment ablated this effect as well as the GH-induced binding of ribonucleic acid polymerase II (RNA Pol II) to the Cish transcription start site. BRD2 knockdown also suppressed GH induction of Cish, further supporting the role of BRD2 in Cish transcriptional activation. In contrast, JQ1 increased the binding of activated Pol II to the Socs3 coding region, suggesting enhanced messenger RNA (mRNA) elongation. Our finding that JQ1 transiently reduced the interaction between the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) and its inhibitor hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible 1 (HEXIM1) is consistent with a previously described off-target effect of JQ1, whereby P-TEFb becomes more available to be recruited by genes that do not depend on BET proteins for activating transcription. These results demonstrate substantially different transcriptional regulation of Socs3 and Cish and suggest distinct roles in adipocytes for these 2 closely related proteins.

Keywords: BET proteins; HEXIM1; P-TEFb; STAT5; adipocytes; growth hormone.

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