Context.—: Cartilaginous tumors represent one of the most common tumors of bone. Management of these tumors includes observation, curettage, and surgical excision or resection, depending on their locations and whether they are benign or malignant. They can be diagnostically challenging, particularly in small biopsies. In rare cases, benign tumors may undergo malignant transformation.
Objective.—: To review common cartilaginous tumors, including in patients with multiple hereditary exostosis, Ollier disease, and Maffucci syndrome, and to discuss problems in the interpretation of well-differentiated cartilaginous neoplasms of bone. Additionally, the concept of atypical cartilaginous tumor/chondrosarcoma grade 1 will be discussed and its use clarified.
Data sources.—: PubMed (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) literature review, case review of archival cases at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and personal experience of the authors.
Conclusions.—: This review has examined primary well-differentiated cartilaginous lesions of bone, including their differential diagnosis and approach to management. Because of the frequent overlap in histologic features, particularly between low-grade chondrosarcoma and enchondroma, evaluation of well-differentiated cartilaginous lesions should be undertaken in conjunction with thorough review of the imaging studies.