The Dietary Inflammatory Index and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia in the MCC Spain Study

Nutrients. 2019 Dec 23;12(1):48. doi: 10.3390/nu12010048.


Chronic inflammation plays a role in the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and diet might modulate chronic inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and CLL. A total of 366 CLL cases and 1643 controls of the Spanish multicase-control (MCC) Spain study were included. The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) based on 30 items from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Overall, a modest, non-statistically significant, positive association was observed between CLL and E-DII scores (OR for a one-unit increase in E-DII: 1.05 (CI 95%: 0.99, 1.12), p-value = 0.09 and by tertiles: ORT2vsT1: 1.20 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.59); OR T3vsT1: 1.21 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.62), p trend = 0.21). These results were independent from disease severity (p-het: 0.70), time from diagnosis (p-het: 0.67) and CLL treatment received (p-het: 0.56). No interactions were detected. In conclusion, the consumption of a diet with high pro-inflammatory components was not significantly associated with CLL. Changes towards a more pro-inflammatory dietary pattern in younger generations not included here warrant future research.

Keywords: MCC Spain study; cancer; case-control study; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; dietary inflammatory index; nutrition.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Diet Records
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / epidemiology*
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spain / epidemiology

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