Hepatic Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism and Lipogenesis Synergistically Adapt to Mediate Healthy Embryonic-to-Neonatal Transition in Chicken

Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 27;9(1):20167. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56715-1.

Abstract

During the normal embryonic-to-neonatal development, the chicken liver is subjected to intense lipid burden from high rates of yolk-lipid oxidation and also from the accumulation of the yolk-derived and newly synthesized lipids from carbohydrates. High rates of hepatic lipid oxidation and lipogenesis are also central features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in both rodents and humans, but is associated with impaired insulin signaling, dysfunctional mitochondrial energetics and oxidative stress. However, these adverse effects are not apparent in the liver of embryonic and neonatal chicken, despite lipid burden. Utilizing comprehensive metabolic profiling, we identify that steady induction of hepatic mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and lipogenesis are central features of embryonic-to-neonatal transition. More importantly, the induction of TCA cycle and lipogenesis occurred together with the downregulation of hepatic β-oxidation and ketogenesis in the neonatal chicken. This synergistic remodeling of hepatic metabolic networks blunted inflammatory onset, prevented accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates (ceramides and diacylglycerols) and reduced reactive oxygen species production during embryonic-to-neonatal development. This dynamic remodeling of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative flux and lipogenesis aids in the healthy embryonic-to-neonatal transition in chicken. This natural physiological system could help identify mechanisms regulating mitochondrial function and lipogenesis, with potential implications towards treatment of NAFLD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural