Nowadays, obesity and its associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, continue to be a health epidemic in westernized societies, and there is an increased necessity to explore anti-obesity therapies including pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds. Considerable attention has been placed on the identification of bioactive compounds from natural sources to manage the metabolic stress associated with obesity. In a previous work, we have demonstrated that a CO2 supercritical fluid extract from yarrow (Yarrow SFE), downregulates the expression of the lipogenic master regulator SREBF1 and its downstream molecular targets FASN and SCD in a tumoral context. Since obesity and diabetes are strongly considered high-risk factors for cancer development, herein, we aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic role of Yarrow SFE in the metabolic stress induced after a high-fat diet in mice. For this purpose, 32 C57BL/6 mice were distributed in four groups according to their diets: standard diet (SD); SD supplemented with Yarrow SFE (SD + Yarrow); high-fat diet (HFD); and HFD supplemented with Yarrow SFE (HFD + Yarrow). Fasting glycemia, insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, gene expression, and lipid content of liver and adipose tissues were analyzed after three months of treatment. Results indicate improved fasting glucose levels in plasma, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and diminished hypercholesterolemia in the HFD + Yarrow group compared to the HFD group. Mechanistically, Yarrow SFE protects liver from steatosis after the HFD challenge by augmenting the adipose tissue buffering capacity of the circulating plasma glucose.
Keywords: cancer; diabetes; fatty liver; hypercholesterolemia; insulin resistance; obesity; yarrow supercritical extract.