Background: Some of the spore-forming strains of Bacillus probiotics are marketed commercially as they survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and bestow health benefits to the host.
Results: We report the composite genome of Bacillus clausii ENTPro from a commercially available probiotic Enterogermina® and compare it with the genomes of other Bacillus probiotics. We find that the members of B. clausii species harbor high heterogeneity at the species as well as genus level. The genes conferring resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, rifampicin, and tetracycline in the B. clausii ENTPro strain could be identified. The genes coding for the bacteriocin gallidermin, which prevents biofilm formation in the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis, were also identified. KEGG Pathway analysis suggested that the folate biosynthesis pathway, which depicts one of the important roles of probiotics in the host, is conserved completely in B. subtilis and minimally in B. clausii and other probiotics.
Conclusions: We identified various antibiotic resistance, bacteriocins, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains, and industrially-relevant pathways, in the genomes of these probiotic bacteria that are likely to help them survive in the harsh gastrointestinal tract, facilitating adhesion to host epithelial cells, persistence during antibiotic treatment and combating bacterial infections.
Keywords: Bacteriocins; Gastrointestinal-tract; Pathogenicity; Phylogeny; Resistome.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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