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, 19 (1), 1089

Prevalence and Predictors of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Pregnant Women From Dhamar, Yemen

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Prevalence and Predictors of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Pregnant Women From Dhamar, Yemen

Abdulelah H Al-Adhroey et al. BMC Infect Dis.

Abstract

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a common and serious parasitic infection caused by the ubiquitous obligatory intracellular protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection with T. gondii is usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it can lead to severe pathological effects in congenital cases and immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and its predictors among pregnant women seeking prenatal and medical care at the general maternal and child health facility in Dhamar district of Dhamar governorate, Yemen.

Methods: A total of 420 pregnant women were randomly selected for this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for anti-T. gondii antibodies (i.e. immunoglobulin M; IgM and immunoglobulin G; IgG) using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and behavioural data were collected using a pretested questionnaire via face-to-face interview. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the independent predictors of T. gondii seroprevalence.

Results: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) among the participants was 21.2% (89/420; 95% CI = 17.3-25.1). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 20.0% (84/420) of the women of which 12.9% (54/420) were positive for only IgG and 7.1% (30/420) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Moreover, 5 women (1.2%) were reactive only for IgM antibodies. Significant associations between T. gondii seroprevalence and history of spontaneous abortion (P < 0.001), raw vegetables consumption (P = 0.036), and presence of cats in household (P = 0.049) were reported. Multivariate analysis confirmed that history of spontaneous abortion (AOR = 4.04; 95% CI = [2.46, 6.63]) and presence of cats in household (AOR = 1.77; 95% CI = [1.02, 3.07]) are significant predictors of T. gondii seroprevalence among the studied participants.

Conclusion: The study found a high seroprevalence (21.2%) of T. gondii infection during pregnancy in Dhamar district, which is significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The provision of adequate maternal healthcare and health education pertaining to the prevention of T. gondii infection is therefore imperative to curtail the prevalence of infection among the studied population.

Keywords: Predictors; Pregnant women; Prevalence; Toxoplasma gondii; Toxoplasmosis; Yemen.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Map showing location of Dhamar governorate and Dhamar district, Yemen (study area). The map was created using the Esri ArcMap 10.7 software
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Flowchart of the participation in the study

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