The pressure injury predictive model: A framework for hospital-acquired pressure injuries

J Clin Nurs. 2020 Apr;29(7-8):1398-1421. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15171. Epub 2020 Jan 20.


Background: Despite decades of research, pressure injuries continue to be a source of significant pain and delayed recovery for patients and substantial quality and cost issues for hospitals. Consideration of the current thinking around pressure injury risk must be evaluated to improve risk assessments and subsequent nursing interventions aimed at reducing hospital-acquired pressure injuries.

Design: This is a discursive paper using Walker and Avant's (2005) theory synthesis framework to examine the relevance of existing pressure injury models as they align with the current literature.

Methods: PubMed and CINAHL indexes were searched, first for conceptual models and then for pressure injury research conducted on hospitalised patients for the years 2006-2016. A synthesis of the searches culminated into a new pressure injury risk model.

Conclusions: Gaps in previous models include lack of attention to the environment, contributing episode-of-care factors and the dynamic nature of injury risk for patients. Through theory synthesis, the need for a new model representing the full risk for pressure injury was identified. The Pressure Injury Predictive Model is a representation of the complex and dynamic nature of pressure injury risk that builds on previous models and addresses new patient, contextual and episode-of-care process influences. The Pressure Injury Predictive Model (PIPM) provides a more accurate picture of the complexity of contextual and process factors associated with pressure injury development.

Relevance to clinical practice: Using the PIPM to determine risk can result in improved risk identification. This information can be used to implement targeted, evidence-based pressure injury prevention interventions specific to the patient risk profile, thus limiting unwarranted and unnecessary care.

Keywords: hospitalisation; nursing theory; predictive model; pressure injury; pressure ulcer; theory synthesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Evidence-Based Nursing
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Nursing Theory*
  • Pressure Ulcer / nursing
  • Pressure Ulcer / prevention & control*
  • Risk Assessment / methods*