Introduction: Assessment of impaired vitamin D metabolism is limited by lack of functional measures. CYP24A1-mediated vitamin D clearance, calculated as the ratio of serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (the vitamin D metabolic ratio, VDMR), is induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and may assess tissue-level activity. We tested associations of the VDMR with risks of death and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods: We studied participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), which included a random subset of 1080 CRIC participants plus additional participants who experienced ESRD or died (case cohort study design). Serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured 1 year after enrollment. The primary outcomes included death and progression to ESRD. Using inverse probability weighting, we tested associations of VDMR (24,25[OH]2D3/25[OH]D3) with risks of death and ESRD, adjusting for demographics, comorbidity, and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio [PCR]).
Results: There were a total of 708 ESRD events and 650 deaths events over mean (SD) follow-up periods of 4.9 (2.9) years and 6.5 (2.5) years, respectively. Lower VDMR was associated with increased risk of ESRD prior to adjusting for kidney function (hazard ratio [HR], 1.80 per 20 pg/ng lower VDMR; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-2.08), but not with adjustment for kidney function (HR, 0.94 per 20 pg/ng; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10). Lower VDMR was associated with modestly increased mortality risk, including adjustment for kidney function (HR, 1.18 per 20 pg/ng; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36).
Conclusion: Lower VDMR, a measure of CYP24A1-mediated vitamin D clearance, was significantly associated with all-cause mortality but not with progression to ESRD in patients with CKD.
Keywords: kidney; mortality; vitamin D.
© 2019 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc.