Background: After stroke, individuals face a variety of impairments that impact function. Increasingly, rehabilitation for these impairments has moved into the community and home settings through the use of home programs. However, adherence to these programs is often low, limiting effectiveness.
Objective: This scoping review investigated home program implementation and measurement of adherence with persons post-stroke to identify commonly reported practices and determine areas for further research.
Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PEDro were searched. Studies focused on post-stroke rehabilitation with an independent home program were selected. Qualitative studies, commentaries, and single-case studies were excluded. Title and abstract screenings were completed by two reviewers with a third for tie-breaking. The full-text review was completed by two reviewers using consensus to resolve any differences. Of the 1,197 articles initially found only 6% (n = 70) met criteria for data extraction. Elements for data extraction included: type of study, area of intervention, description of home program, presence of strategies to support adherence, methods to measure adherence and reported adherence.
Results: Most commonly reported strategies to support home practice were the use of technology, personalization, and written directions. Only 20 studies reported achieving adherence at or greater than 75% and 18 studies did not report adherence outcomes.
Conclusions: Future investigations that directly compare and identify the most effective strategies to support adherence to home programs for this population are warranted. The implementation of guidelines for reporting adherence to home programs is recommended.
Keywords: Adherence; home programs; methods; monitoring; rehabilitation; review; stroke.