Variable Genomic and Metabolomic Responses to Varying Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation

Anticancer Res. 2020 Jan;40(1):535-543. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.13982.


Background/aim: To assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on genomic and metabolomic profiles and relate them to the individual's responsiveness to varying doses of vitamin D3 Patients and Methods: Healthy adults were given either 600, 4000 or 10,000 IUs vitamin D3/day for 6 months. Circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, peripheral white blood cells broad gene expression and urine and serum metabolomic profiles were evaluated.

Results: There was a dose-dependent effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25(OH)D, PTH and broad gene expression. Serum calcium levels remained normal for all study subjects and no untoward toxicity was observed. The metabolomic profiles were related to the genomic expression analysis. There were significant inter-individual effects on gene expression and metabolomic profile in response to the same dose of vitamin D3 supplementation, despite similar changes in 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations.

Conclusion: These results may help explain the variability observed in clinical trials regarding vitamin D's non-calcemic health benefits.

Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D; broad gene expression; genomics; individual response; metabolomic profile; metabolomics; personalized medicine; supplementation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Genomics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolomics*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Protein Interaction Maps / drug effects
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology*


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D