The color of skin: white diseases of the skin, nails, and mucosa

Clin Dermatol. 2019 Sep-Oct;37(5):561-579. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2019.07.018. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Abstract

White diseases are a heterogenous group characterized by hypopigmentation or depigmentation. Skin and eye color are determined by the number and size of melanosomes present. Melanin is produced by melanosomes in the melanocytes present within the epidermis of the skin, uvea, and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Conditions altering the number of melanocytes or concentration of melanin result in a lack of pigmentation, appearing as "white diseases" ranging from the well-known albinism and vitiligo to more esoteric white hand syndrome and Degos disease.

MeSH terms

  • Albinism / diagnosis
  • Albinism / etiology
  • Albinism / therapy
  • Color
  • Cosmetics / adverse effects
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Hypopigmentation / diagnosis*
  • Hypopigmentation / etiology*
  • Hypopigmentation / pathology
  • Hypopigmentation / therapy
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / diagnosis
  • Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / etiology
  • Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / pathology
  • Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / therapy
  • Malignant Atrophic Papulosis / diagnosis
  • Malignant Atrophic Papulosis / etiology
  • Malignant Atrophic Papulosis / pathology
  • Mucous Membrane
  • Nail Diseases / etiology
  • Nevus, Halo / diagnosis
  • Nevus, Halo / etiology
  • Nevus, Halo / pathology
  • Pityriasis Lichenoides / diagnosis
  • Pityriasis Lichenoides / etiology
  • Pityriasis Lichenoides / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Skin Lightening Preparations / adverse effects
  • Tinea Versicolor / diagnosis
  • Tinea Versicolor / drug therapy
  • Tinea Versicolor / etiology
  • Vibration / adverse effects
  • Vitiligo / diagnosis
  • Vitiligo / etiology
  • Vitiligo / therapy
  • Waardenburg Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Waardenburg Syndrome / etiology

Substances

  • Cosmetics
  • Skin Lightening Preparations