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Review
, 19 (1), 17-29

Significant Function and Research Progress of Biomarkers in Gastric Cancer

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Review

Significant Function and Research Progress of Biomarkers in Gastric Cancer

Dong Mei Ye et al. Oncol Lett.

Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumor types, and the incidence and mortality rates are higher in men compared with women. Various studies have revealed that gastric cancer is a spectrum of tumor types, which have biological and genetic diversity. It has proven to be difficult to improve the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer through the use of traditional surgery and chemoradiation, as gastric cancer is usually identified at an advanced stage. In consequence, the outcome is frequently poor. Thus, novel biomarkers and anticancer targets are required to improve the outcome. As the identification of biomarkers has increased due to advances in research and the greater availability of bioinformatics and functional genomics, the potential therapeutic regimens available have also increased concurrently. These advances have also improved the ability to predict responses to chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy, whilst other biomarkers predict post-treatment survival and recurrence based on their expression. This review focuses closely on the important functions of biomarkers in the timely diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer, in addition to the advances in the study of certain novel markers in gastric cancer.

Keywords: biomarker; diagnosis; gastric cancer; immunotherapy; prognosis; targeted therapy.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Function and research findings of biomarkers in gastric cancer. Common and emerging biomarkers used in gastric cancer, including biomarkers associated with the molecular subtypes, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy of gastric cancer in addition to their direct potential function in improving the diagnosis and treatment options in patients with gastric cancer. CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; CA, cancer antigen; CD, cluster of differentiation; MUC2, mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel forming; AFP, α-fetoprotein; EBV, Epstein Barr virus; HER-2, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; VEGFR2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; PD-1, programmed cell death 1; dMMR, deficient mismatch repair; MSI-H, high levels of microsatellite instability; hMLH1, human mutL homolog 1; CDH1, cadherin-1; miRNA, microRNA; lncRNA, long non-coding RNA; circRNA, circular RNA; Bcl-2, BCL2 apoptosis regulator; ncRNA, non-coding RNA; TCGA, The Cancer Genome Atlas; ACRG, Asian Gastric Cancer Research Group; MG7-Ag, monoclonal gastric cancer 7 antigen; PG, pepsinogen; G-17, gastrin-17.

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