Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) survivors often experience sleep disturbances. Self-efficacy for managing chronic disease may impact sleep for SAH survivors; however, little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and subjective and objective sleep measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among self-efficacy and subjective (nighttime sleep quality and daytime sleepiness) and objective (total sleep time [TST], wake after sleep onset [WASO], and sleep efficiency [SE]) sleep measures in SAH survivors. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 30 SAH survivors was conducted. Self-efficacy was assessed with the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease scale. Nighttime sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. SAH survivors wore a wrist actigraph for 7 days to estimate TST, WASO, and SE. Analyses revealed that, within 3 months post-SAH, 73% of SAH survivors experienced poor sleep quality and 27% reported excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition, 41.4% of the participants slept on average either < 7 h or > 9 h. Self-efficacy was correlated with nighttime sleep quality (r = -0.394, p = .031) and SE (r = 0.412, p = .026), but not with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.257, p = .170), TST (r = 0.137, p = .447), or WASO (r = -0.223, p = .246). Sleep disturbances are prevalent in SAH survivors. Targeted interventions focused on self-efficacy and self-management behaviors in this population may improve sleep and lead to better health.
Keywords: Actigraph, Daytime sleepiness, Self-efficacy; Sleep, Sleep quality; Stroke; Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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