Purpose: To determine how different combinations of humeral stem and glenosphere designs for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) influence range of motion (ROM) and muscle elongation.
Methods: A computed tomography scan of a non-pathologic shoulder was used to simulate all shoulder motions, and thereby compare the ROM and rotator cuff muscle lengths of the native shoulder versus 30 combinations of humeral components (1 inlay straight stem with 155° inclination and five onlay curved stems with 135°, 145° or 155° inclinations, using concentric, medialized or lateralized trays) and glenospheres (standard, large, lateralized, inferior eccentric and bony increased-offset (BIO-RSA)).
Results: Only five of the 30 combinations restored ≥ 50% of the native ROM in all directions: the 145° onlay stem (concentric tray) combined with lateralized or inferior eccentric glenospheres and the 145° stem (lateralized tray) combined with either a large, lateralized or inferior eccentric glenosphere. Lengthening of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, observed for all configurations, was greatest using onlay stems (7-30%) and BIO-RSA glenospheres (13-31%). Subscapularis lengthening was observed for onlay stems combined with BIO-RSA glenospheres (5-9%), while excessive subscapularis shortening was observed for the inlay stem combined with all glenospheres except the BIO-RSA design (> 15%).
Conclusions: The authors suggest implanting 145° onlay stems, with concentric or lateralized trays, together with lateralized or inferior eccentric glenospheres.
Keywords: Glenoid and humeral offset; Glenosphere design; Humeral stem design; Impingement; Muscle length; Range of motion; Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.