Purpose: To evaluate tumor and ablation zone morphology and densitometry related to tumor recurrence in participants with Stage IA non-small cell lung cancer undergoing radiofrequency ablation in a prospective, multicenter trial.
Materials and methods: Forty-five participants (median 76 years old; 25 women; 20 men) from 16 sites were followed for 2 years (December 2006 to November 2010) with computed tomography (CT) densitometry. Imaging findings before and after ablation were recorded, including maximum CT attenuation (in Hounsfield units) at precontrast and 45-, 90-, 180-, and 300-s postcontrast.
Results: Every 1-cm increase in the largest axial diameter of the ablation zone at 3-months' follow-up compared to the index tumor reduced the odds of 2-year recurrence by 52% (P = .02). A 1-cm difference performed the best (sensitivity, 0.56; specificity, 0.93; positive likelihood ratio of 8). CT densitometry precontrast and at 45 seconds showed significantly different enhancement patterns in a comparison among pretreated lung cancer (delta = +61.2 HU), tumor recurrence (delta = +57 HU), and treated tumor/ablation zone (delta [change in attenuation] = +16.9 HU), (P < .0001). Densitometry from 45 to 300 s was also different among pretreated tumor (delta = -6.8 HU), recurrence (delta = -11.2 HU), and treated tumor (delta = +12.1 HU; P = .01). Untreated and residual tumor demonstrated washout, whereas treated tumor demonstrated increased attenuation.
Conclusions: An ablation zone ≥1 cm larger than the initial tumor, based on 3-month follow-up imaging, is recommended to decrease odds of recurrence. CT densitometry can delineate tumor versus treatment zones.
Copyright © 2019 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.