Aims: To explore the pattern of insulin use and glycaemic control in Asian people with type 2 diabetes, stratified by gender, young-onset diabetes (YOD; diagnosed before age 40 years), and diabetic kidney disease (DKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 ).
Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 97 852 patients from 11 Asian countries/regions (2007-2017) included in the prospective Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Register.
Results: Among 18 998 insulin users (47% women, mean ± SD age 59.2 ± 11.7 years, diabetes duration 13.2 ± 8.3 years, glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 72 ± 21.4 mmol/mol [8.74 ± 1.95%], median total daily insulin dose [TDD] 0.27-0.82 units/kg), 25% and 29.5% had YOD and DKD, respectively. Premixed (44%) and basal-only (42%) insulin were the most common regimens. Despite being more commonly treated with these two regimens with higher insulin dosages, patients with YOD had worse HbA1c levels than their late-onset peers (73 ± 20.5 vs. 71 ± 21.2 mmol/mol [8.82 ± 1.87% vs. 8.66 ± 1.94%]; P < 0.001). Fewer women than men attained an HbA1c level < 53 mmol/mol (7%; 15.7% vs 17.1%; P = 0.018). Adjusting for age, diabetes duration, TDD, HbA1c, eGFR, and use of oral glucose-lowering drugs at baseline, the odds of self-reported hypoglycaemia were higher in women (vs. men: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.28) and in patients with DKD treated with a premixed regimen (1.81 [95% CI 1.54-2.13] vs. 1.34 [95% CI 1.16-1.54] in non-DKD; Pinteraction < 0.001). Compared to basal-only regimens, premixed and basal-bolus regimens had similar HbA1c reductions but were independently associated with increased odds of hypoglycaemia (1.65 [95% CI 1.45-1.88] and 1.88 [95% CI 1.58-2.23], respectively).
Conclusions: In this Asian population, there were varying patterns of insulin regimens with suboptimal glycaemic control, despite relatively high TDDs, which were influenced by gender, DKD, and YOD status.
Keywords: Asians; hypoglycaemia; insulin therapy; nephropathy; type 2 diabetes; women; young-onset diabetes.
© 2020 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.