Celiac Disease

Ann Intern Med. 2020 Jan 7;172(1):ITC1-ITC16. doi: 10.7326/AITC202001070.


Gluten-related disorders, including celiac disease, wheat allergy, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), are increasingly reported worldwide. Celiac disease is caused by an immune-mediated reaction to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible persons. NCGS is largely a diagnosis of exclusion when other causes of symptoms have been ruled out. All patients with celiac disease should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist with expertise in celiac disease and a gastroenterologist who specializes in celiac disease and malabsorptive disorders, and they should remain on a strict gluten-free diet indefinitely. This article provides an overview of gluten- and wheat-related disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy
  • Celiac Disease* / diagnosis
  • Celiac Disease* / diet therapy
  • Celiac Disease* / epidemiology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Mass Screening
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Referral and Consultation