In a prospective study of macular hole formation, focal electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained from both eyes of 35 patients with a unilateral, idiopathic, full-thickness macular hole. Foveal cone ERG amplitude was significantly correlated with hole diameter at the initial visit. Twenty-six patients had normal foveal cone ERGs in the fellow eye at the baseline visit and for the duration of the study (mean follow-up, 35 months; range, 24 to 56 months). None of these eyes developed a macular hole. Seven eyes had significantly reduced foveal cone ERGs in the fellow eye, despite good visual acuity and a normal-appearing macula on the initial visit. Four of these eyes subsequently developed a full-thickness macular hole during follow-up (mean follow-up, 35 months; range, 25 to 46 months). Foveal ERG amplitude was significantly related to subsequent macular hole formation, suggesting that this test can provide an objective measure of macular function to help identify eyes at risk for macular hole formation.