Sleep is involved in metabolic, emotional and cognitive regulation and is therefore an essential part of our health. Although an association between sleep quality and macronutrient intake has been reported, studies on the effect of macronutrient distribution with sleep quality are limited, and available results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to assess the association between sleep quality and macronutrient distribution in healthy adults from systematically reviewed cross-sectional studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A total of 19 relevant articles were selected and it was observed that good sleepers (sleep duration ≥ 7 h, global sleep score ≤ 5, sleep latency ≤ 30 min and sleep efficiency >85%) had a higher energy distribution from dietary protein than poor sleepers. On the other hand, good sleepers showed a relatively lower percentage of energy from dietary carbohydrate and fat than poor sleepers. However, meta-regression analysis revealed no dose-dependent association between the macronutrient distributions and sleep duration. These results suggest that consuming a greater proportion of dietary protein may benefit on improving sleep quality in healthy adults. However, findings may be susceptible to reverse causality and additional RCTs are needed.
Keywords: acceptable macronutrient distribution range; dietary protein; macronutrients distribution; sleep quality.