Development of generic Asian pelvic bone models using CT-based 3D statistical modelling

J Orthop Translat. 2019 Nov 4;20:100-106. doi: 10.1016/ eCollection 2020 Jan.


Background/objective: Artificial bone models (ABMs) are used in orthopaedics for research of biomechanics, development of implants and educational purposes. Most of the commercially available ABMs approximate the morphology of Europeans, but they may not depict the Asian anatomy. Therefore, our aim was to develop the first Asian ABM of the pelvis and compare it with the existing pelvic ABM (Synbone®; Caucasian male).

Methods: One hundred clinical computed tomography (CTs) of adult pelvises (male n ​= ​50, female n ​= ​50) of Malay, Chinese and Indian descent were acquired. CTs were segmented and defined landmarks were placed. Three 3D statistical pelvic model and mean models (overall, male, female) were generated. Anatomical variations were analysed using principal component analysis. To measure gender-related differences and differences to the existing ABM, distances between the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS), the anterior inferior iliac spines (AIIS), the promontory and the symphysis (conjugate vera, CV) as well as the ischial spines (diameter transversa, DT) were quantified.

Results: Principal component analysis displayed large variability regarding the pelvic shape and size. Female and male statistical models were similar in ASIS (225 ​± ​20; 227 ​± ​13 ​mm; P ​= ​0.4153) and AIIS (185 ​± ​11; 187 ​± ​10 ​mm; P ​= ​0.3982) and differed in CV (116 ​± ​10; 105 ​± ​10 ​mm; P ​< ​0.0001) and DT (105 ​± ​7; 88 ​± ​8 ​mm; P ​< ​0.0001). Comparing the unisex mean model with the pre-existing ABM, the ASIS (226; 275 ​mm; P ​< ​0.0001), the AIIS (186; 209 ​mm; P ​< ​0.0001) and the CV (111; 105 ​mm; P ​< ​0.0001) differed significantly. Both models were similar regarding DT (97; 95 ​mm; P ​= ​0.6927). The analysis revealed notable gender- and size-dependent anatomical variations within the Asian population. Chinese, Malay and Indian descents did not differ notably. The overall Asian model was smaller than the existing ABM.

The translation potential of this article: Owing to the large differences between the Asian ABM and the pre-existing ABM, as well as differences between genders, the use of an Asian- and gender-specific ABM is important to consider in research, biomechanics and implant development for this population.

Keywords: Bone models; Bone shape; Pelvic anatomy; Surgical education.