Current aspects of TIA management

J Clin Neurosci. 2020 Feb;72:20-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.12.032. Epub 2020 Jan 5.

Abstract

Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) if untreated carries a high risk of early stroke and is associated with poorer long-term survival [1]. There is emerging evidence of a reduction in stroke risk following TIA. Time critical investigations and management, as well as service organisation remain key to achieving good outcomes. Patients are diagnosed with TIA if they have transient, sudden-onset focal neurological symptoms which usually completely and rapidly resolve by presentation. The tissue based definition of TIA guides the fact that patients with residual symptoms should be considered as potentially having a stroke, with urgent evaluation regarding eligibility for thrombolysis and/or endovascular clot retrieval (ECR). Essential investigations for all patients with TIA should include early brain imaging, ECG, and carotid imaging in patients with anterior circulation symptoms. After brain imaging, exclusion of high risk indicators and immediate administration of an antiplatelet agent, subsequent attention to other mechanistic factors can be managed safely as part of a structured clinical pathway supervised by stroke specialists. This is in line with the recently revised Stroke Foundation Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management (2017).

Keywords: Imaging; Prevention; Service; Stroke; TIA.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / diagnosis*
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / drug therapy*
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / physiopathology
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Neuroimaging
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Stroke / etiology

Substances

  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors