Single-dose bNAb cocktail or abbreviated ART post-exposure regimens achieve tight SHIV control without adaptive immunity

Nat Commun. 2020 Jan 7;11(1):70. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13972-y.


Vertical transmission accounts for most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children, and treatments for newborns are needed to abrogate infection or limit disease progression. We showed previously that short-term broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal infection. Here, we report that all infants given either a single dose of bNAbs at 30 h, or a 21-day triple-drug ART regimen at 48 h, are aviremic with almost no virus in tissues. In contrast, bNAb treatment beginning at 48 h leads to tight control without adaptive immune responses in half of animals. We conclude that both bNAbs and ART mediate effective post-exposure prophylaxis in infant macaques within 30-48 h of oral SHIV exposure. Our findings suggest that optimizing the treatment regimen may extend the window of opportunity for preventing perinatal HIV infection when treatment is delayed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / administration & dosage*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • HIV Antibodies / administration & dosage*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • HIV-1 / physiology
  • Humans
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control*
  • Macaca
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / transmission
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / immunology
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / physiology


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • HIV Antibodies