Efficacy of and Satisfaction with an In-house Developed Natural Rubber Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Manikin

West J Emerg Med. 2019 Dec 9;21(1):91-95. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2019.10.43004.


Introduction: A barrier to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in low-income countries is limited resources. Our goal was to build a CPR training model of simple design that would provide a good feedback system.

Methods: We developed a low-cost, Basic Life Support training manikin made entirely of natural rubber. Our in-house manikin provides feedback when performing correct chest compression and rescue breathing. The properties of the manikin were tested using simulated chest compression in a laboratory and compared with a commercial manikin. Forty healthy nurse volunteers with CPR experience performed CPR in both types of manikins and responded to questionnaires.

Results: A tensile test in a laboratory demonstrated that both types of manikins had acceptable ranges of properties for real-situation CPR in cardiac arrest patients. There were no differences in aesthetic properties, and the manikins felt to the volunteers like a real patient when they were performing chest compression. The feedback response was clear when chest compressions and rescue breathing were performed correctly, and the overall satisfaction with the manikin was good. In addition, the mean scores in terms of the manikin feeling like a real patient when performing rescue breathing and the positive feedback from the rubber manikin were statistically higher than those for the commercial manikin (p=0.001 vs. p=0.023).

Conclusion: The in-house developed CPR manikin employing real-time feedback by simple mechanics is effective compared with a commercial manikin. The advantage of our manikin is that it is easy to build and costs substantially less than a commercial manikin. The use of an in-house developed manikin could make effective CPR training more available in limited-resource areas.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / education*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods
  • Emergency Nursing / education*
  • Equipment Design
  • Feedback
  • Female
  • Heart Arrest / therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Manikins*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nurses / psychology
  • Personal Satisfaction*
  • Pressure
  • Rubber
  • Volunteers
  • Young Adult


  • Rubber