Novel immunotherapy combinations for genitourinary cancers

Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2020 Mar;20(3):253-262. doi: 10.1080/14712598.2020.1713086. Epub 2020 Jan 27.


Introduction: Several immune checkpoint inhibitors are FDA-approved for metastatic/advanced RCC and urothelial carcinoma (UC) based on improvements in survival. The dendritic cell vaccine, sipuleucel-T, is also approved for patients with mCRPC, based on a 4-month survival benefit.Areas covered: Preclinical evidence suggests that there is promise in combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with several different classes of anti-cancer agents, including tumor-directed vaccines, cytokines, chemotherapy, and multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here we review immunotherapy combinations currently approved for RCC, UC, and prostate cancer with a focus on emerging therapies. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed publications and recent meeting abstracts and provide an overview of ongoing combination immunotherapy trials for genitourinary malignancies and discussion of preliminary findings where available.Expert opinion: Recently, many potential immunotherapy combinations have emerged. In addition to determining clinical activity, important challenges include investigating additive adverse effects and determining the best sequence of therapy.

Keywords: Genitourinary oncology; checkpoint inhibitor; combination immunotherapy; therapeutic cancer vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Cytokines / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / therapy
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Cytokines
  • Immunologic Factors