The circadian system generates endogenous rhythms of approximately 24 h, the synchronisation of which are vital for healthy bodily function. The timing of many physiological processes, including glucose metabolism, are coordinated by the circadian system, and circadian disruptions that desynchronise or misalign these rhythms can result in adverse health outcomes. In this review, we cover the role of the circadian system and its disruption in glucose metabolism in healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We begin by defining circadian rhythms and circadian disruption and then we provide an overview of circadian regulation of glucose metabolism. We next discuss the impact of circadian disruptions on glucose control and type 2 diabetes. Given the concurrent high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and circadian disruption, understanding the mechanisms underlying the impact of circadian disruption on glucose metabolism may aid in improving glycaemic control.
Keywords: Beta cell function; Circadian disruption; Circadian misalignment; Circadian rhythm; Diabetes; Glucose control; Glucose metabolism; Glucose tolerance; Insulin sensitivity; Review; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Circadian System and Glucose Metabolism: Implications for Physiology and Disease.Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016 May;27(5):282-293. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2016.03.005. Epub 2016 Apr 11. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016. PMID: 27079518 Free PMC article. Review.
Endogenous circadian system and circadian misalignment impact glucose tolerance via separate mechanisms in humans.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 28;112(17):E2225-34. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418955112. Epub 2015 Apr 13. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015. PMID: 25870289 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
Disruption of circadian rhythms accelerates development of diabetes through pancreatic beta-cell loss and dysfunction.J Biol Rhythms. 2011 Oct;26(5):423-33. doi: 10.1177/0748730411416341. J Biol Rhythms. 2011. PMID: 21921296 Free PMC article.
Circadian regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism in humans.Metabolism. 2018 Jul;84:11-27. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.11.017. Epub 2018 Jan 9. Metabolism. 2018. PMID: 29195759 Free PMC article. Review.
Chronomedicine and type 2 diabetes: shining some light on melatonin.Diabetologia. 2017 May;60(5):808-822. doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4175-1. Epub 2016 Dec 16. Diabetologia. 2017. PMID: 27981356 Review.
Cited by 1 article
Effects of Shift Work on the Eating Behavior of Police Officers on Patrol.Nutrients. 2020 Apr 4;12(4):999. doi: 10.3390/nu12040999. Nutrients. 2020. PMID: 32260404 Free PMC article.
- R01 DK099512/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
- R01 HL118601/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
- T32 HL007901/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
- K24 HL103845/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States
- R01 HL140574/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States