Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane bound vesicles released into the extracellular environment by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. EVs are enriched in active biomolecules and they can horizontally transfer cargo to recipient cells. In recent years EVs have demonstrated promising clinical applications due to their theragnostic potential. Although EVs have promising therapeutic potential, there are several challenges associated with using EVs before transition from the laboratory to clinical use. Some of these challenges include issues around low yield, isolation and purification methodologies, and efficient engineering (loading) of EVs with therapeutic cargo. Also, to achieve higher therapeutic efficiency, EV architecture and cargo may need to be manipulated prior to clinical application. Some of these issues have been addressed by developing biomimetic EVs. EV mimetic-nanovesicles (M-NVs) are a type of artificial EVs which can be generated from all cell types with comparable characteristics as EVs for an alternative therapeutic modality. In this review, we will discuss current techniques for modifying EVs and methodology used to generate and customize EV mimetic-nanovesicles.
Keywords: Cargo modification; Engineering; Exosome mimetic-nanovesicles; Extracellular vesicles; Therapeutic loading.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.