Clinical and economic burden of community-onset multidrug-resistant infections requiring hospitalization

J Infect. 2020 Mar;80(3):271-278. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.12.021. Epub 2020 Jan 7.


Objectives: To analyze the clinical and economic burden of community-acquired (CA) or community-onset healthcare-associated (COHCA) multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections requiring hospitalization.

Methods: Case-control study. Adults admitted with CA or COHCA MDR infections were considered cases, while those admitted in the same period with non-MDR infections were controls. The matching criteria were source of infection and/or microorganism. Primary outcome was 30-day clinical failure. Secondary outcomes were 90-day and 1-year mortality, hospitalization costs and resource consumption.

Results: 194 patients (97 cases and 97 controls) were included. Multivariate analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR], 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.14) and SOFA score (OR, 1.45, CI95%, 1.15-1.84) as independent predictors of 30-day clinical failure. Age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95%CI, 1.03-1.16) was the only factor associated with 90-day mortality, whereas age (HR 1.06, 95%CI, 1.03-1.09) and Charlson Index (HR 1.2, 95%CI, 1.07-1.34) were associated with 1-year mortality. MDR group showed longer hospitalization (p<0.001) and MDR hospitalization costs almost doubled those in the non-MDR group. MDR infections were associated with higher antimicrobial costs.

Conclusions: Worse economic outcomes were identified with community-onset MDR infections. MDR was associated with worse clinical outcomes but mainly due to higher comorbidity of patients in MDR group, rather than multidrug resistance.

Keywords: Burden; Clinical failure; Community-onset healthcare-associated infections; Community-onset infections; Hospital costs; Mortality; Multidrug resistance; Resource consumption.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cost of Illness*
  • Cross Infection* / drug therapy
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents