Trichoderma asperellum reduces phoxim residue in roots by promoting plant detoxification potential in Solanum lycopersicum L

Environ Pollut. 2020 Apr:259:113893. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113893. Epub 2019 Dec 30.


Phoxim, a broad-spectrum organophosphate pesticide, is widely used in agriculture to control insect pests in vegetable crops as well as in farm mammals. However, the indiscriminate use of phoxim has increased its release into the environment, leading to the contamination of plant-based foods such as vegetables. In this study, we investigated the effect of Trichoderma asperellum (TM, an opportunistic fungus) on phoxim residue in tomato roots and explored the mechanisms of phoxim metabolism through analysis of detoxification enzymes and gene expression. Degradation kinetics of phoxim showed that TM inoculation rapidly and significantly reduced phoxim residues in tomato roots. Phoxim concentrations at 5d, 10d and 15d post treatment were 75.12, 65.71 and 77.45% lower in TM + phoxim than only phoxim treatment, respectively. The TM inoculation significantly increased the glutathione (GSH) content, the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the transcript levels of GSH, GST1, GST2 and GST3 in phoxim-treated roots. In addition, the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol peroxidase involved in the xenobiotic conversion also increased in TM + phoxim treatment. The expression of detoxification genes, such as CYP724B2, GR, ABC2 and GPX increased by 3.82, 3.08, 7.89 and 2.46 fold, respectively in TM + phoxim compared with only phoxim. Similarly, the content of ascorbate (AsA) and the ratio of AsA to dehydroascorbate increased by 45.16% and 57.34%, respectively in TM + phoxim-treated roots. Our results suggest that TM stimulates plant detoxification potential in all three phases (conversion, conjugation and sequestration) of xenobiotc metabolism, leading to a reduced phoxim residue in tomato roots.

Keywords: Detoxification; Glutathione S-transferase; Pesticide residue; Phoxim; Tomato; Trichoderma.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Environmental Restoration and Remediation
  • Organothiophosphorus Compounds* / analysis
  • Organothiophosphorus Compounds* / metabolism
  • Pesticide Residues* / analysis
  • Pesticide Residues* / metabolism
  • Plant Roots* / chemistry
  • Plant Roots* / microbiology
  • Solanum lycopersicum* / microbiology
  • Trichoderma* / metabolism


  • Organothiophosphorus Compounds
  • Pesticide Residues
  • phoxim