Encyclopedia of endometriosis: a pictorial rad-path review

Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020 Jun;45(6):1587-1607. doi: 10.1007/s00261-019-02381-w.


Endometriosis affects approximately 10% of reproductive age women and represents a significant cause of pelvic pain and infertility. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of endometriosis is often delayed by years. Endometriosis may manifest as cystic lesions in the ovaries known as endometriomas. Superficial endometriosis is typically detected by laparoscopy along the pelvic peritoneum as these lesions tend to be difficult to detect by imaging. Deep infiltrative endometriosis may be detected by ultrasound, CT or MRI in classic locations within the pelvis, such as the posterior cul-de-sac and uterosacral ligaments. Endometriosis may also involve the thorax, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and locations such as the abdominal wall and abdominal organs. We present MRI and CT case examples, together with corresponding laparoscopic and histopathology images to enhance radiologists' understanding of this disease.

Keywords: CT; Endometriosis; MRI; Pathology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endometriosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Pelvis / diagnostic imaging
  • Ultrasonography