Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuronal death and synaptic loss, and inflammation in the brain. AD research has, in large part, been dedicated to the understanding of Aβ and NFT deposition as well as to the pharmacological reduction of these hallmarks. However, recent GWAS data indicates neuroinflammation plays a critical role in AD development, thereby redirecting research efforts toward unveiling the complexities of AD-associated neuroinflammation. It is clear that the innate immune system is intimately associated with AD progression, however, the specific roles of glia and neuroinflammation in AD pathology remain to be described. Moreover, inflammatory processes have largely been painted as detrimental to AD pathology, when in fact, many immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis aid in the reduction of AD pathologies. In this review, we aim to outline the delicate balance between the beneficial and detrimental aspects of immune activation in AD as a more thorough understanding of these processes is critical to development of effective therapeutics for AD.
Keywords: amyloid; cytokine; glia; neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; tau.
Copyright © 2019 Frost, Jonas and Li.