Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2019 Nov 29;10:1418.
doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01418. eCollection 2019.

PD-1 Inhibitors in the Advanced Esophageal Cancer

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

PD-1 Inhibitors in the Advanced Esophageal Cancer

Ye Hong et al. Front Pharmacol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Esophageal cancer (EC) is a lethal disease, and ranks 7th in incidence and 6th in mortality worldwide. Patients are treated with surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy for a curative intent, but for those with advanced diseases systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy are the mainstay treatment with poor prognosis. For the patients with squamous cell carcinoma and those progressed after chemotherapy, treatment option is even fewer, and effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Preclinical and clinical studies have found the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors activate T lymphocytes, inhibit cancer growth, and improve survival in cancer patients. Multiple PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been approved for the management of a variety of cancers. Interestingly, a large of proportion of EC patients have tumors with PD-L1 expression and high tumor mutation burden. Trials have been performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in EC patients. This review will summarize the current progress in this field, especially the toxicities associated with these agents.

Keywords: PD-1 inhibitor; efficacy; esophageal carcinoma; gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma; safety.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Clinical studies of PD-1 inhibitors in EC. Each trial was plotted against the year of the initiation. The circle area denoted the sample size, and SCC and adenocarcinoma were depicted in different colors.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Summary of toxicities and ORRs in each study.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Abdo J., Agrawal D. K., Mittal S. K. (2017). Basis for molecular diagnostics and immunotherapy for esophageal cancer. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 17 (1), 33–45. 10.1080/14737140.2017.1260449 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Araki K., Youngblood B., Ahmed R. (2014). Programmed Cell Death 1-Directed Immunotherapy for Enhancing T-Cell Function. Cold Spring Harb Symp. Quant. Biol. 78 (1), 239–247. 10.1101/sqb.78.019869 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Bray F., Ferlay J., Soerjomataram I., Siegel R. L., Torre L. A., Jemal A. (2018). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: Cancer J. Clinicians. 68 (6), 394–424. 10.3322/caac.21492 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Chedgy E. C. P., Black P. C. (2016). Nivolumab: the new second line treatment for advanced renal-cell carcinoma commentary on: nivolumab versus everolimus in advanced renal-cell carcinoma. Urology. 89, 8–9. 10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.003 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Chen L., Han X. (2015). Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of human cancer: past, present, and future. J. Clin. Invest. 125 (9), 3384–3391. 10.1172/JCI80011 - DOI - PMC - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback