"Liver medicine" refers to all diagnostic and treatment strategies of diseases and conditions that cause liver failure directly or indirectly. Despite significant advances in the field of liver medicine in recent years, improved tools are needed to efficiently define the pathophysiology of liver diseases and provide effective therapeutic options to patients. Recently, organoid technology has been established as the state-of-the-art cell culture tool for studying human biology in health and disease. In general, organoids are simplified three-dimensional (3D) mini-organ structures that can be grown in a 3D matrix where the structural and functional aspects of real organs are efficiently recapitulated. The generation of organoids is facilitated by exogenous factors that regulate multiple signaling pathways and promote the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of the cells to promote spontaneous self-organization and tissue-specific organogenesis. Newly established protocols suggest that liver-specific organoids can be derived from either pluripotent stem cells or liver-specific stem/progenitor cells. Today, robust and long-term cultures of organoids with the closest physiology to in vivo liver, in terms of cellular composition and function, open a new era in studying and understanding the disease pathology as well as high-throughput drug screening. Of note, these next-generation cell culture systems have immense potential to be further improved by genome editing and bioengineering technologies to foster the development of patient-specific therapeutic options for clinical applications. Here, we will discuss recent advances and challenges in the generation of human liver organoids and highlight emerging concepts for their potential applications in liver medicine.
Keywords: 3D cell culture systems; adult stem cells; disease modeling; iPSCs; liver; organoids.
Copyright © 2019 Akbari, Arslan, Senturk and Erdal.
Disease Modeling Using 3D Organoids Derived From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem CellsBX Ho et al. Int J Mol Sci 19 (4). PMID 29561796. - ReviewThe rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-li …
Kidney Organoids in Translational Medicine: Disease Modeling and Regenerative MedicineT Miyoshi et al. Dev Dyn 249 (1), 34-45. PMID 30843293. - ReviewThe kidney is one of the most complex organs composed of multiple cell types, functioning to maintain homeostasis by means of the filtering of metabolic wastes, balancing …
Generation of Expandable Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocyte-Like Liver OrganoidsSJ Mun et al. J Hepatol 71 (5), 970-985. PMID 31299272.Our organoids exhibit self-renewal (expandable and further able to differentiate) while maintaining their mature hepatic characteristics over long-term culture. These org …
Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Kidney Organoids: An in Vivo-Like in Vitro TechnologyF Schutgens et al. Eur J Pharmacol 790, 12-20. PMID 27375081. - ReviewOrganoids are self-organizing, multicellular structures that contain multiple cell types, represent organ structure and function, and can be used to model organ developme …
Testicular Organoids: A New Model to Study the Testicular Microenvironment in Vitro?JP Alves-Lopes et al. Hum Reprod Update 24 (2), 176-191. PMID 29281008.By way of appropriate research questions, we might use testicular organoids to deepen our basic understanding of testicular development and the SSC niche, leading to new …