Despite advances in early detection and treatment, invasion and metastasis of breast tumors remains a major hurdle. Cystatin A (CSTA, also called stefin A), an estrogen-regulated gene in breast cancer cells, is an inhibitor of cysteine cathepsins, and a purported tumor suppressor. Loss of CSTA expression in breast tumors evidently shifts the balance in favor of cysteine cathepsins, thereby promoting extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism behind the loss of CSTA expression in breast tumors is not known. Here, we have analyzed CSTA expression, and methylation of upstream and intron-2 CpG sites within the CSTA locus in human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumors of the TCGA cohort. Results showed an inverse relationship between expression and methylation. Sequence analysis revealed a potential estrogen response element (ERE) in the intron-2. Analysis of ChIP-seq data (ERP000380) and our own ChIP experiments showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) enhanced ERα binding to this ERE in MCF-7 cells. This ERE was located amidst the differentially methylated intron-2 CpG sites, which provoked us to examine the possible conflict between estrogen-regulation of CSTA and DNA methylation in the intron-2. We analyzed the expression of CSTA and its regulation by E2 in MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells subjected to global demethylation by 5-azacytidine (5-aza). 5-aza significantly demethylated intron-2 CpGs, and enhanced estrogen-induced ERα occupancy at the intron-2 ERE, leading to restoration of estrogen-regulation. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA methylation-dependent silencing could play a significant role in the loss of CSTA expression in breast tumors. The potential of DNA methylation as an indicator of CSTA expression or as a marker of tumor progression can be explored in future investigations. Furthermore, our results indicate the convergence of ERα-mediated estrogen regulation and DNA methylation in the intron-2, thereby offering a novel context to understand the role of estrogen-ERα signaling axis in breast tumor invasion and metastasis.
Keywords: Bisulfite sequencing; Cystatin A; Estrogen; Intron-2; Methylation; Stefin A.
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