On-line Prediction of Hazardous Fungal Contamination in Stored Maize by Integrating Vis/NIR Spectroscopy and Computer Vision

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2020 Mar 15;229:118012. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2019.118012. Epub 2019 Dec 30.


This work presents a fusion scheme to combine visible/near infrared spectroscopy and computer vision for on-line detection of Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. contamination in stored maize. Spectroscopy and image information of 270 groups of maize kernels were collected at speed of 0.15 m/s. Principal component analysis indicated fungi growth on maize could be monitored by both techniques. Spectroscopy method was found sensitive for infection level identification, while computer vision was more effective for fungal strain recognition. Linear discriminant analysis based on fusion of spectral and image features provided 100% accuracy for discrimination of samples infected by different strains after stored for 12 d, which is at least 5.6% higher than single-type features. Classification rate of samples with different infection levels achieved 92.2%, also 5.5% and 10.0% higher than single technique. Moreover, data fusion improved colony counts prediction in samples by partial least squares regression, with root mean-square error of prediction value being reduced by 25.0% and 17.4%, respectively. This study demonstrated the superiority of data fusion for fungal detection in grain during on-line processing.

Keywords: Computer vision; Data fusion; Fungal contamination; Maize; On-line detection; Visible/near infrared spectroscopy.