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. 2019 Dec 19;2019:8123467.
doi: 10.1155/2019/8123467. eCollection 2019.

Validity of Measurement for Trailing Limb Angle and Propulsion Force During Gait Using a Magnetic Inertial Measurement Unit

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Free PMC article

Validity of Measurement for Trailing Limb Angle and Propulsion Force During Gait Using a Magnetic Inertial Measurement Unit

Takasuke Miyazaki et al. Biomed Res Int. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Propulsion force and trailing limb angle (TLA) are meaningful indicators for evaluating quality of gait. This study examined the validity of measurement for TLA and propulsion force during various gait conditions using magnetic inertial measurement units (IMU), based on measurements using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a force platform. Eighteen healthy males (mean age 25.2 ± 3.2 years, body height 1.70 ± 0.06 m) walked with and without trunk fluctuation at preferred, slow, and fast velocities. IMU were fixed on the thorax, lumbar spine, and right thigh and shank. IMU calculated the acceleration and tilt angles in a global coordinate system. TLA, consisting of a line connecting the hip joint with the ankle joint, and the laboratory's vertical axis at late stance in the sagittal plane, was calculated from thigh and shank segment angles obtained by IMU, and coordinate data from the motion analysis system. Propulsion force was estimated by the increment of velocity calculated from anterior acceleration measured by IMU fixed on the thorax and lumbar spine, and normalized impulse of the anterior component of ground reaction force (AGRF) during late stance. Similarity of TLA measured by IMU and the motion analysis system was tested by the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and root mean square (RMS) of measurement error. Relationships between normalized impulse of AGRF and increments of velocity, as measured by IMU, were tested using correlation analysis. CMC of TLA was 0.956-0.959. ICC between peak TLAs was 0.831-0.876 (p < 0.001), and RMS of error was 1.42°-1.92°. Velocity increment calculated from acceleration on the lumbar region showed strong correlations with normalized impulse of AGRF (r = 0.755-0.892, p < 0.001). These results indicated a high validity of estimation of TLA and propulsion force by IMU during various gait conditions; these methods would be useful for best clinical practice.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Position of reflective markers and magnetic inertial measurement units (IMU); subject shown in gait with forward lean during right early stance.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Estimation of the trailing limb angle (TLA) by motion analysis system (a) and magnetic inertial measurement units (b). MT, tilt angle matrix of the thigh segment; Ms, tilt angle matrix of the shank segment; VT, vector of the thigh segment; Vs, vector of the shank segment.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Waveform of the anterior–posterior component of ground reaction force (GRF) (a) and the anterior–posterior acceleration of lumbar spine (b) during stance phase. Late stance was defined as duration that the anterior–posterior GRF shows anterior force. The intervals of anteriorly directed GRF and acceleration (the gray area) were integrated to estimate the impulse of the anterior GRF and the velocity increment of trunk (thorax, lumbar spine). IC, initial contact.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Trailing limb angle during 250 ms before and after toe-off measured by magnetic inertial measurement units (IMU) and a motion analysis system. Coefficient of multiple correlation was 0.959 in Preferred (a), 0.959 in Slow (b), 0.958 in Fast (c), 0.957 in Lean-preferred (d), and 0.956 in Lean-slow (e), respectively. The broken line and the gray area indicate the mean and one standard deviation for IMU. The solid line indicates the mean and one standard deviation for motion analysis system. The zero of time indicates the right toe-off. Each average and standard deviation represented for 18 participants.

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