Inactivation of three emerging viruses - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and Nipah virus - in platelet concentrates by ultraviolet C light and in plasma by methylene blue plus visible light

Vox Sang. 2020 Apr;115(3):146-151. doi: 10.1111/vox.12888. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Abstract

Background: Emerging viruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Nipah virus (NiV) have been identified to pose a potential threat to transfusion safety. In this study, the ability of the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma pathogen inactivation systems to inactivate these viruses in platelet concentrates and plasma, respectively, was investigated.

Materials and methods: Blood products were spiked with SARS-CoV, CCHFV or NiV, and then treated with increasing doses of UVC light (THERAFLEX UV-Platelets) or with methylene blue (MB) plus increasing doses of visible light (MB/light; THERAFLEX MB-Plasma). Samples were taken before and after treatment with each illumination dose and tested for residual infectivity.

Results: Treatment with half to three-fourths of the full UVC dose (0·2 J/cm2 ) reduced the infectivity of SARS-CoV (≥3·4 log), CCHFV (≥2·2 log) and NiV (≥4·3 log) to the limit of detection (LOD) in platelet concentrates, and treatment with MB and a fourth of the full light dose (120 J/cm2 ) decreased that of SARS-CoV (≥3·1 log), CCHFV (≥3·2 log) and NiV (≥2·7 log) to the LOD in plasma.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that both THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (UVC) and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma (MB/light) effectively reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV, CCHFV and NiV in platelet concentrates and plasma, respectively.

Keywords: methylene blue; pathogen inactivation; plasma; platelet concentrates; ultraviolet light.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Platelets / virology
  • Blood Transfusion
  • Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo / drug effects
  • Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo / radiation effects*
  • Humans
  • Light*
  • Methylene Blue / pharmacology*
  • Nipah Virus / drug effects
  • Nipah Virus / radiation effects*
  • Plasma / virology
  • SARS Virus / drug effects
  • SARS Virus / radiation effects*
  • Ultraviolet Rays*
  • Virus Inactivation*

Substances

  • Methylene Blue