The clinical significance of CHEK1 in breast cancer: a high-throughput data analysis and immunohistochemical study

Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2019 Jan 1;12(1):1-20. eCollection 2019.


Breast cancer (BC) is a kind of malignant cancer that seriously threatens women's health. Research scientists have found that BC occurs as the result of multiple effects of the external environment and internal genetic changes. Cell cycle checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1) is a crucial speed limit point in the cell cycle. Alterations of CHEK1 have been found in various tumors but are rarely reported or verified in BC. By mining database information, a large amount of mRNA and protein data was collected and meta-analyzed. Also, in-house immunohistochemistry was carried out to validate the results of the CHEK1 expression levels. Relative clinical features of BC patients were calculated with the CHEK1 expression levels to determine their diagnostic value. The mRNA levels of CHEK1 were higher in 1,089 cases of BC tissues than in 291 cases of non-BC tissues. We observed that the mRNA levels of CHEK1 are related to the clinical stages of BC patients (P = 0.008) and are also significant for overall survival (HR = 1.6, P = 0.0081). Using the immunohistochemistry method, we calculated and confirmed, using Fisher's exact test (P < 0.001), that a high-level CHEK1 protein is exhibited in BC tissues. Overexpressed CHEK1 mRNA promotes the occurrence of BC. Also, up-regulated CHEK1 could serve as an independent risk biomarker in BC patients' prognoses.

Keywords: Breast cancer; cell cycle checkpoints; cytogenetic analysis; medical oncology.